Background: Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor with a mortality rate of 40% in the most aggressive cases. Tumor microenvironment components as immune cells contribute to the tumor progression; thereby, the modulation of immune cells to a pro-inflammatory and antitumoral profile could potentialize the immunotherapy, a suggested approach for high-risk patients. Preview studies showed the antitumoral potential of BJcuL, a C- type lectin isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom. It was able to induce immunomodulatory responses, promoting the rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the activation of neutrophils. Methods: SK-N-SH cells were incubated with conditioned media (CM) obtained during the treatment of neutrophils with BJcuL and fMLP, a bacteria-derived peptide highly effective for activating neutrophil functions. Then we evaluated the effect of the same stimulation on the co-cultivation of neutrophils and SK-N-SH cells. Tumor cells were tested for viability, migration, and invasion potential. Results: In the viability assay, only neutrophils treated with BJcuL (24 h) and cultivated with SK-N-SH were cytotoxic. Migration of tumor cells decreased when incubated directly (p < 0.001) or indirectly (p < 0.005) with untreated neutrophils. When invasion potential was evaluated, neutrophils incubated with BJcuL reduced the total number of colonies of SK-N-SH cells following co-cultivation for 24 h (p < 0.005). Treatment with CM resulted in decreased anchorage-free survival following 24 h of treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Data demonstrated that SK-N-SH cells maintain their migratory potential in the face of neutrophil modulation by BJcuL, but their invasive capacity was significantly reduced.
Keywords: Snake venom; Neuroblastoma; SK-N-SH cells; C-type lectin; Polymorphonuclear leukocyte; Neoplasm invasion.